Monday, September 7, 2009

Good Morning

Wake up and smell the fresh baguette. Good morning, indeed. This is my idea of a really fine breakfast or brunch. A great baguette cut "tartine-style", hunk of cheese (Wisconsin seven-year cheddar there), heirloom tomatoes from the garden or market (I think that was a black krim), some smoked fish (in this case a South Shore smoked herring spread). The glass of our own fresh, home-pressed apple cider doesn't hurt, either.

But it all depends on the bread: You frequently hear that a good baguette should have a "crispy" crust, and a "light and airy" crumb. I just feel that that is so, so wrong. That pretty much describes every awful, styrofoam, grocery store baguette out there (sadly, it also describes too many "artisan" baguettes, as well).

No, the crust of a great baguette is not crisp, it is crunchy. The distinction is this: A crispy crust shatters into a billion little shards when you bite it, and offers little resistance to the tooth. A crunchy crust resists the tooth, you have to work a little to bite through it, and it sheds a minimal amount of crumbs.

A light and airy crumb, desireable? I think not: Dense and chewy, pocked with gorgeous craters, the insides of the larger holes shiny with gluten. It's a piece of bread that demands good teeth. It's a meal in itself, not an afterthought accessory. Well, that's how I feel, anyway. That's how I would describe the great bread I've had in France, notably the
Boulangerie Kayser baguette, and others. These bakeries often proudly display a baguette cut open as for tartine in their shop windows, so you can see that lovely landscape of irregular chasms, perfect for taking up plenty of good butter.

And as that top photo of Mary smelling her bread attests, a great baguette has that utterly appetizing fragrance, of wheaty crumb and golden crust. If you tear off a piece of fresh baguette and you're not moved to stick your nose right in it, something's wrong.

I forgot to mention the butter when I listed the elements of a great tartine breakfast. How could I? Hope Creamery butter for us, unsalted. None other. And the jam, blackberry, Bide-A-Wee fruit, sweet but with a beautiful brambly, savory scent to it--always reminds me of good pipe tobacco, vanilla notes, comforting. Blackberry jam on sharp cheddar. Is this heaven? No, it's Wisconsin....

The fish spread was made with smoked herring we picked up at
Halvorson's fishery in beautiful Cornucopia on Wisconsin's magical South Shore of Lake Superior. We mixed the flaked fish with some cream cheese and mayo (Kraft, sorry; and Hellmann's, no apology), a few chopped capers and some minced shallots from Jackie of Sylvan Hills at the market. That black krim tomato we got from Joe, Honey Creek Joe, some call him. Chervil and parsley from our garden, just a sprinkling of coarse salt.

And the cider: Yes, apples from our land, pressed just outside the kitchen door. I will show off our new Happy Valley Ranch cider press, right soon.

You can buy a freshly baked Real Bread baguette most Saturday mornings at the
Midtown Farmers' Market. If you come right at 8:00, the bread will still be warm from the oven. Don't come after 9:30 thinking you'll get one, period. Then you'll just have to make your own. It's not that hard. I got it right after practicing for just 20 years....

French “Off-White” Bread
The Real Bread baguette and bâtard

A portion of whole wheat flour gives added taste and texture to this basic bread. I usually make this bread into long baguettes or round “boules,” but you can make it into any shape you like: crusty ficelles—very thin baguettes; or plump bâtards; or a big round country loaf. Wheat gluten or "vital wheat gluten," is the part of flour that makes bread dough stretchy and baked bread nice and chewy. You can find it in most grocery stores and co-ops. Co-ops often have it in bulk bins, sometimes refrigerated, sometimes not.

1 cup warm water (around 110 degrees; it should feel quite warm, but not hot)
2½ tsp active dry yeast
2 cups water
1 1/2 Tbsp wheat gluten
¾ cup whole wheat flour
1 Tbl plus ½ tsp salt
5 ½ to 6 cups unbleached all-purpose flour, plus additional if needed during kneading and loafing

Place 1 cup of warm water in a large mixing bowl. Stir in the yeast and set aside for 5 to 10 minutes to allow the yeast to soften—it will rise to the top in a kind of foam.

Add the additional 2 cups of water, the salt, wheat gluten, the whole wheat flour, and three cups of all-purpose flour. Mix well. Add another cup of flour and mix again, then another cup of flour. The dough will appear rather rough and “shaggy” at this point.

Turn the dough out onto a clean countertop or table. Knead for 2 minutes, adding flour as necessary to keep the dough from sticking. After this initial kneading, put the dough back in the bowl and let it rest for at least 10 minutes. The dough should be fairly uniform, but it doesn’t need to be completely smooth.

When the dough has rested, put it back on the kneading surface. Knead the dough for another 4 or 5 minutes, again adding flour as necessary—you will use most of the sixth and final cup of all-purpose flour during kneading.

By the end of the second kneading the dough should be smooth, elastic, and firm. When you poke it with your finger it should bounce back quickly. When you pinch it, it should offer some resistance.

Return the dough to the mixing bowl, cover the bowl with plastic wrap.

Two options now: For the best result, refrigerate the dough for several hours, five hours to overnight. Remove from refrigerator, knead briefly, and leave out at room temp until it has warmed and doubled in size. For example: I'll make the doughs I bake into baguettes on Saturday morning Friday afternoon, refrigerate until bedtime, knead down, leave out overnight. First thing in the morning, shape, proof, bake.

Short method, if you don't have time for all that: Refrigerate the dough for an hour. Remove from fridge, knead down, allow to rise at room temperature for two to three hours, until doubled in volume. At this point you can either knead it down again and let it rise one more time, or proceed to shaping and baking.

Loafing the bread: Lightly flour the kneading surface. Punch the dough down and place it back on the kneading surface. Knead it briefly, adding flour as needed if the dough is sticky. Divide the dough into pieces appropriate to the shapes of bread you want to make: baguettes, about 10 ounces; round “boules” or ovals, about 20 ounces; bâtards, the plumper baguettes, about 16 ounces.

A tip for shaping baguettes: Do it in several stages. First just knead a piece of dough briefly, and form it into a slightly elongated shape. Leave it alone for a couple of minutes. Roll it between your palms to elongate it further. Press it flat, and fold the sides over, and tuck them in. Leave it alone for another couple of minutes. Repeat this technique until your baguette is as long as your want it--don't forget to take the size of your oven/baking stone into account!

Preparing the oven: You may want to line the bottom of your oven with aluminum foil to make clean-up easier. To add steam to the oven, which helps create a better final rise in the oven, and produces better crust and color, we’re going to toss ice cubes and water into the oven right after the bread goes in. With an electric oven, you can throw the cubes and water directly on the oven floor. Warning: Over time (quite a short time, really), this will warp and discolor your oven floor. Alternately, with either gas or electric ovens, you can place a small cast iron skillet in the bottom of the oven—look at thrift stores or garage sales. With gas ovens, the skillet method is the only one I recommend. Using a cast iron skillet in this way will pretty much ruin it for anything else.

With baking stone and skillet already in place, preheat your oven to 455 degrees.

Dust your peel, cutting board, or baking sheet with cornmeal. Shape the loaves and place them on the peel, cutting board, or baking sheet. Cover with plastic wrap, and let rise about 40 minutes.

After 40 minutes transfer the dough to a peel dusted with cornmeal. Let rise another ten minutes.

Preparing the loaves for baking: Dusting the loaves with flour gives an attractive appearance, and makes them a little easier to slash, but is not necessary. If you like, place some flour in a small sieve and lightly dust the loaves. With a single-edge razor or very sharp knife (a serrated bread knife works well), slash the loaves—this is done to allow for even rising in the oven. For baguettes, make three overlapping slashes down the length of the bread. For boules I usually makes three slashes, creating a slanting “H” shapes. You may be creative and slash in any way you like, bearing in mind that a uniform final rise is what you’re after.

Have 4 ice cubes ready. Give the peel a little shake to be sure the loaves will slide off easily—if they stick, flour your hands lightly and gently lift the loaves to free them.

Now slide them into the oven. Thrust the peel forward toward the back of the stone, then pull it quickly back toward you so the loaves slide off onto the stone.

Throw the ice cubes into the skillet. Close the door.

For baguettes, bake 15 minutes at 455, then turn the loaves around on the stone to ensure even baking, and turn the oven down to 430. Bake for 10 minutes more, or until the baguettes are well browned and sound hollow when tapped on the bottom.

For larger loaves: Bake 15 minutes at 455, turn the loaves around, bake another 12 to 15 minutes at 430.

Remove the loaves from the oven when done, and cool on a wire rack. Always allow bread to cool for at least 30 minutes before serving—the inside of the bread is still very soft and moist just after it comes out of the oven.

An alternative to the peel method: Line a baking sheet with parchment paper, and dust the parchment with cornmeal. Shape the dough into loaves and place on the parchment-lined baking sheet. Cover and let rise as above. When you’re to bake, place the baking sheet directly on the baking stone. Halfway through the baking, slide the baking sheet and parchment out, allowing the bread to finish baking directly on the stone. This is a good method for baguettes, which can be a little tricky to slide off of a peel. You may see a slightly smaller final rise, and the crust may be affected somewhat, but you’ll still get a very good result.

Text and photos copyright 2009 by Brett Laidlaw


Kim Ode said...

I feel as if I've gotten a peek inside the vault! Thanks for sharing the recipe, and I completely concur with your definition of a great baguette.
Now a few questions: I was surprised to see all-purpose flour instead of the usual bread flour, and wondered what your path was with that? And I've run hot and cold on adding gluten (or, more honestly, run forgetting and remembering since it's in very few recipes) and so have never gotten a handle on the difference it brings. What's your take?
Again, thanks for being so generous with the recipe.

Tom said...

Your ideal breakfast is right on; and very similar to what Martha and I have learned to do, right down to the Hope creamery unsalted. Great points about the proper texture for a good loaf of bread.

We have actually been missing our usual breakfast lately since after the death of my sourdough starter a month ago I have been off my regular bread-baking game. This post may be the inspiration I needed to get baking again. Thanks!

Trout Caviar said...

Hi Kim: I've given that recipe out at all the classes I've done--it's nothing special, just a list of ingredients, and I hope the instructions help. The stone and the steam are key, of course, I can't overstate that. And then you add experience, just boring old repetition, and the confidence that comes with it, and I think that's how you make good bread.

I started off with AP flour and added gluten to sort of approximate bread flour, just because I didn't want to have to keep so many bags of flour around the house (this from the person who today brought home around 250 pounds of flour to add to the hundred or so pounds already here...! LOL, I think is what they say...). But the thing is, I think bread flour can be a crutch, and relying on it too much makes dull, one-note bread. I sometimes add a cup or two to batches using 10 cups of flour or more, overall, mainly in breads like our pain de campagne, which includes some whole grains that tend to weaken the gluten, or things like fougasse that I want really chewy and crusty. In general, though, I prefer to develop gluten through long rising and chilling of the dough. That method gives a chewy, crusty bread, and lots of other flavors, besides. My original recipe for the baguette dough, for instance, used twice the gluten of the current one, but I only proofed that dough for a few hours, and didn't refrigerate it. When I started refrigerating, and proofing overnight, I found the dough much too stiff to work with in the morning, though it was at room temp. Cut the gluten in half, and I'm happy. So, that's what I know, and how I came around to it. I started just using the gluten as directed on the box, and adjusted. The baguette/batard dough is the only one I use gluten in.

My AP flour of choice, BTW--I think we've discussed this, and share the preference?--is Dakota Maid, from North Dakota. Way back when, I tested most of the widely available flours, Pillsbury, Gold Medal, etc., and Dakota Maid came out on top for my bread. Oh, King Arthur was the closest, but costs twice as much. Never have understood that. And, great day in the morning, it looks like flour prices are finally coming down a bit from the dizzying heights they reached a year or two ago.

Thanks for checking in, and happy baking to you~ Brett

Trout Caviar said...

Hi Tom: Autumn is a good time to get a starter going. It seems to me a particularly yeasty time of the year, what with the mists and the mellow fruitfulness, and all!

I have heard that you can freeze starter and have it come back to life after a good long while--haven't tried it, though, but you know, I'm going to freeze some today, and see if that works. Since you can freeze bread dough and have the yeast reactivate upon thawing, you should be able to do the same with starter. Be good to have a back-up in case of starter failure.

Cheers, see you at the market~ Brett